Periodontology or periodontics (from Ancient Greek περί, perí – 'around'; and ὀδούς, odoús – 'tooth', genitive ὀδόντος, odóntos) is the claim to fame of dentistry that reviews supporting structures of teeth, just as maladies and conditions that influence them. The supporting tissues are known as the periodontium, which incorporates the gingiva (gums), alveolar bone, cementum, and the periodontal tendon. An individual who practices this forte is known as a periodontist.

Periodontal infections take on various structures yet are typically a consequence of a mixture of bacterial plaque biofilm aggregation of the red complex microscopic organisms (e.g., P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, and T. denticola) of the gingiva and teeth, joined with host immuno-incendiary systems and other hazard factors that can prompt decimation of the supporting bone around normal teeth. Untreated, these sicknesses can prompt alveolar bone misfortune and tooth misfortune. Starting at 2013, Periodontal infection represented 70.8% of teeth lost in patients with the ailment in South Korea. Periodontal malady is the second most normal reason for tooth misfortune (second to dental caries) in Scotland. 

Periodontology likewise includes the situation and support of dental inserts, including the treatment of peri-implantitis (provocative bone misfortune around dental inserts). The etiology of peri-implantitis is believed to be fundamentally the same as periodontal malady.

A hazard factor is a variable that in wellbeing, can be characterized as "a trademark related with an expanded rate of an accordingly happening infection." Risk elements are factors that add to sickness, instead of being factors that incite ailment. Hazard variables might be viewed as modifiable and non-modifiable. Modifiable hazard variables are frequently social in nature and can be changed by the individual or ecological conditions, though non-modifiable are typically characteristic for a people hereditary qualities and can't be changed. To decide hazard factors for an ailment, proof based research and studies are required for proof, with longitudinal investigations giving the most factually critical results and the best unwavering quality for deciding danger factors. Hazard factors regularly exist together with different factors, seldom acting alone to add to an illness. Hazard variables can be hereditary, ecological, social, mental, and statistic in nature.



There are many hazard factors that add to setting a person at higher hazard for creating gingival and periodontal maladies. In any case, the main aetiological factor for periodontal malady is bacterial plaque, or biofilm. Distinguishing pieces of proof of ones hazard variables assume a significant job in the analysis, treatment and the board of periodontal infections. Individual, modifiable hazard components include: 

Tobacco Smoking - Tobacco smoking is immovably settled as a noteworthy hazard factor for periodontal ailment, with the connection between smoking introduction and periodontal tissue devastation being bolstered firmly by different research papers.Smoking diminishes the mending capacities of the oral tissues by pulverizing veins and supply and keeping fundamental safe guard life forms from entering the tissues. In this way, pathogenic microorganisms can destruct the periodontal tissues all the more quickly and heighten the seriousness of malady. In spite of the fact that the clinical indications of aggravation are less articulated, smokers have a bigger bit of locales with profound stashing profundities and loss of clinical connection when contrasted and nonsmokers.Smoking end and advising is a necessary piece of a dental experts work with periodontal infection patients. Smoking discontinuance has been demonstrated to anticipate movement of periodontal sickness and to restore the oral microflora to a less pathogenic microbial state.  

Diabetes Mellitus - Diabetes falls under the classification of modifiable hazard factors as in spite of the fact that it can't be relieved, it very well may be controlled, which extraordinarily enables periodontal sickness to control. An unmistakable two-way relationship has been set up with blood glucose control legitimately affecting periodontal illness seriousness and movement, and the other way around. Periodontal illness patients with diabetes mellitus likewise have more unfortunate recuperating capacities than those without diabetes, and henceforth are at an expansion chance for increasingly extreme sicknesses if blood glucose control is poor and when mending capacities are influenced by fundamental malady. 

Poor Oral Hygiene - As plaque is the main etiological factor for periodontal infection, poor oral cleanliness is the most conspicuous hazard factor in starting, advancing and deciding seriousness of illness. Performing brushing and interdental cleaning is maybe a standout amongst the best ways at expelling dental plaque biofilm and counteractive action of periodontal sicknesses.